Thiopental : Therapeutic uses, Dosage & Side Effects
Thiopentone (Thiopental) is a ultra short acting Barbiturate, used for induction of anesthesia, supplementation of other anesthetic agents etc. It is is generally provided as a sodium salt (i.e. Thiopental sodium).
Dose : 500-1000 mg
Route : Oral, IV
Plasma Half-life : 5.5-26 hours
Duration of action : ?
Bioavailability : ?
Chemical formula : C11H17N2NaO2S
IUPAC name : (RS)-[5-ethyl-4,6-dioxo-5-(pentan-2-yl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl]sulfanide sodium
Trade name : Pentothal, Sodium Pentothal, Trapanal
Therapeutic uses : Thiopentone has following usage :
- May be used intravenously to induce anesthesia.
- May be used as mild sedative & hypnotic to relieve anxiety, nervous tension, and insomnia.
- Occasionally employed as adjuvants in psychosomatic disorders.
Side effects : Thiopentone may cause following Side effects :
- Impaired concentration,
- Mental and physical sluggishness,
- Mental confusion (& Traffic accidents),
- Impaired performance,
- Idiosyncrasy, excitement,
- Hypersensitivity reactions e.g. Rashes, swelling of eyelids, lips, etc.
Acute barbiturate poisoning Mostly suicidal, sometimes accidental; infrequently encountered now due to inavailability of barbiturates. However, the principles of treatment apply to any CNS depressant poisoning. Manifestations are due to excessive CNS depression- patient is flabby and comatose with shallow and failing respiration, fall in BP and cardiovascular collapse, renal shut down, pulmonary complications, bullous eruptions.
Withdrawl symptoms :
- Abrupt withdrawal from barbiturates may cause tremors, anxiety, weakness, restlessness, nausea and vomiting, seizures, delirium, and cardiac arrest.
- Withdrawal is much more severe than that associated with opiates and can result in death. Death may also result from overdose.
- Severe depression of respiration is coupled with central cardiovascular depression and results in a shock-like condition with shallow, infrequent breathing.
- Acute intermittent porphyria
- Liver and kidney disease
- Severe pulmonary insufficiency. e.g. emphysema·
- Obstructive sleep apnoea.
For detailed query or in case of uncertainty, Always consult your doctor or pharmacist.