Symptomatology : Symptoms & their causes

Symptomatology : Symptoms & their causes

In order to make proper diagnosis post history taking, here we are eliciting some of the common symptoms which the patients presents with & their causes are given below:

1. Weight Loss

  • Caloric malnutrition e.g. fasting, inappropriate diet
  • Chronic infections e.g. HIV infection, infective endocarditis, tuberculosis, amebic liver abscess, fungal infections etc.
  • Acute infections e.g. viral hepatitis, typhoid, septicemia
  • Malignancy
  • Malabsorption syndrome
  • Endocrine diseases e.g. diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, panhypopituitarism, addison’s disease etc.
  • Anorexia nervosa

2. Weight Gain

  • Increased tissue mass e.g. obesity, endocrine disease (cushing’s disease, hypothyroidism, acromegaly etc.), hypothalamic diseases (craniopharyngioma, frohlich’s syndrome, hamartoma etc.), drugs (steroids etc.)
  • Increased water retention e.g. cardiac failure, liver cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, hypoproteinemia, edema states etc.

3. Anorexia

  • Viral hepatitis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Malignancies like carcinoma of stomach
  • Endocrine diseases e.g panhypopituitarism, addison’s disease etc.
  • Chronic wasting diseases e.g. uremia, liver cirrhosis, chronic alcoholism, chronic smoking etc.
  • Drugs e.g. digitalis, quinine, metronidazole etc.

4. Fever

  • Infections e.g. bacterial, viral, rickettsial, fungal parasites etc.
  • Neoplasms e.g. Any neoplasm but commonly with hypernephroma, lymphoproliferative malignancies, carcinoma of pancreas, lung & bone, hepatoma.
  • Vascular e.g. acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, pontine hemorrhage etc.
  • Traumatic e.g. crush injury
  • Immunological e.g. collagen disease, SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, drug fever, serum sickness
  • Endocrine e.g. thyrotoxicosis, addison’s disease
  • Hematological e.g. acute hemolytic crisis
  • Physical agents e.g. heat stroke, radiation sickness
  • Habitual hyperprexia
  • Factitious fever
  • Cyclic neutropenia

6. Chest pain

  • Cardiac e.g. ischemic heart disease, pericarditis, infective endocarditis, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, dissecting aneurysm of aorta etc.
  • Respiratory e.g. pleurisy, pneumothorax, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, malignancy.
  • Musculoskeletal e.g. rib fracture, vertebral collapse, costochondritis, myositis of pectoral muscle etc.
  • Functional
  • Esophagitis
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Pancreatitis
  • Cholecystitis
  • Splenic flexure syndrome
  • Herpes zoster of intercostal nerves.

7. Dyspnea

  • Physiological e.g. mountaineers, exercise, hyperpyrexia, anemia
  • Respiratory e.g. airway obstruction, bronchial asthma, COPD, pulmonary infections, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, bronchogenic carcinoma, pleural effusion, pneumothorax etc.
  • Cardiac e.g. acute myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, left ventricular failure, congenital cyanotic heart disease etc.
  • Metabolic e.g. diabetes, uremia, hypokalemia
  • Neurological e.g. respiratory center depression as in syringobulbia, motor neuron disease, guillain barre syndrome, bulbar polio, myasthenia gravis etc.
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