Drugs

Chlorpheniramine : Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, & Contraindications

Chlorpheniramine Maleate : Therapeutic uses, Clinical uses, Indications, Dosage, Side Effects, Warnings, Interactions, Precautions, Contraindications & Brand names

Chlorpheniramine (Chlorphenamine) is a first generation H1- receptor blocker (Anti-histamine), used as common component of OTC Cold medication, useful in elieving symptoms of sinus congestion, sinus pressure, runny nose, watery eyes, itching of the nose and throat, and sneezing due to upper respiratory infections (eg, colds), allergies, and hay fever. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor..
Dose : 2-4 mg (Oral)
Route : Oral, Intra-muscular (I.M.), IV, SC
Plasma half-life : 21–27 hours
Duration of action : 24 hours
Bioavailability : 25 to 50%
Chemical formula : C16H19ClN2
IUPAC name : 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-3-pyridin-2-yl-propan-1-amine
Trade name : Piriton, Cadistin, Chlor-Trimeton, Ahist
Therapeutic uses : Chlorpheniramine has following usage :

  • Useful in treating & preventing the allergic reactions like-Hey fever, sneezing, runny nose, itching, watery eyes, skin rash & hives and common cold.
  • Used as common component of OTC Over the counter Cold medication.
  • It has mild sedative properties.

Side effects : First-generation H1-receptor blockers have a low specificity, interacting not only with histamine receptors but also with muscarinic cholinergic receptors, α-adrenergic receptors, and serotonin receptors. Some side effects may be undesirable, and others may be of therapeutic value. Following side effects are annotated:

On CNS

  • Sedation (most frequently observed adverse reaction),
  • Diminished alertness and concentration,
  • Fatigue, lassitude, tinnitus, dizziness, tendency to fall asleep,
  • Lack of coordination (Motor incoordination), and tremors,
  • Light headedness, headache, euphoria, nervousness,
  • Blurring of vision, Diplopia

On GIT

  • Alteration of bowel movement,
  • Epigastric distress,
  • Dryness of mouth,
  • Urinary hesitancy ( urinary retention or frequency, and dysuria)
  • Acute overdose (acute poisoning) exhibits various adverse effects, most common and dangerous effects on the CNS like central excitation, tremors, hallucinations, ataxia, muscular incordination, convulsions, and flushing, hypotension, fever & some other features of belladonna poisoning. If untreated, the patient may experience a deepening coma and collapse of the cardiorespiratory system resulting in Death.

Note :- Although the margin of safety of H1-receptor blockers is relatively high, and chronic toxicity is rare, acute poisoning is relatively common, especially in young children.

Drug Interactions : Chlorpheniramine may interact with following drugs :

Precautions

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist

  • If you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies.
  • Your medical history, especially of respiratory problems, glaucoma, heart problems, high bp, liver disease, seizures, GIT problems, hyperthyroidism, urinary problems.

Contraindications

  • Contraindicated in patient with history of hypersensitivity to chlorpheniramine or its component.

For detailed query or in case of uncertainty, Always consult your doctor or pharmacist.

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