Cefepime : Therapeutic uses, Dosage & Side Effects
Cefepime is the fourth generation cephalosporins. It is usually a reserved drug to treat moderate to severe nosocomial pneumonia, infections caused by multiple drug-resistant microorganisms (e.g. P. aeruginosa) and empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia.
Dose : 1-2 g (50 mg/kg) i.v. 8-12 hourly
Route : IM, IV
Onset of action : ?
Plasma Half-life : 2 hours
Duration of action : ?
Bioavailability : 100%
Plasma protein binding : ?
Metabolism : Hepatic 15%
Pregnancy risk category : B
Chemical formula : C19H24N6O5S2
IUPAC name : (6R,7R,Z)-7-(2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(methoxyimino)acetamido)-3-((1-methylpyrrolidinium-1-yl)methyl)-8-oxo-5-thia-1-aza-bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate
Trade name : Kefage, Ceficad, Cepime, Maxipime, Voco, Neopime, Cepimax, Cepimex, Axepim.
Antibacterial spectrum : Cefepime has an extended spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with greater activity against both types of organism than third-generation agents. Cefepime is highly resistant to β-lactamases, hence active against many bacteria resistant to the earlier drugs. Ps. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus are also inhibited.
Therapeutic uses : Cefepime is effective in many serious infections like hospital-acquired pneumonia, febrile neutrorenia, bacteraemia, septicaemia, uncomplicated & complicated urinary tract infections (including pyelonephritis), uncomplicated skin & skin structure infections, complicated intra-abdominal infections etc. because of high potency and extended spectrum.
Mechanism of action : Cephalosporins cause inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. i.e. they have the same mechanism of action as penicillin. However, they bind to different proteins than those which bind penicillins.
Side effects : Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but are more toxic than penicillin. Cefepime may provoke following side effects :
- Abdominal or stomach cramps,
- Back, leg, or stomach pains,
- Bleeding gums,
- Dark urine,
- Nausea or vomiting,
- Hypersensitivity Reactions,
- Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea.
Drug Interactions : Cefepime may interact with following drugs :
- Aminoglycosides : Increased potential of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminoglycoside antibacterial drugs
- Diuretics : Nephrotoxicity
- Contraindicated in patients who have shown immediate hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins, penicillins or other beta-lactam antibiotics.
For detailed query or in case of uncertainty, Always consult your doctor or pharmacist.