Cefdinir : Therapeutic uses, Dosage & Side Effects
Cefdinir is an orally active third generation cephalosporin. It is used to treat a wide variety of mild to moderate bacterial infections.
Dose : 300 mg BD, 125-250 mg/5 mL
Route : Oral
Onset of action : ?
Plasma Half-life : 1.7 ± 0.6 hours
Duration of action : ?
Bioavailability : 16-25% (dose-dependent)
Plasma protein binding : 60-70%
Metabolism : Negligible
Pregnancy risk category : B
Chemical formula : C14H13N5O5S2
IUPAC name : 8-[2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-1-hydroxy-2-nitroso-ethenyl]amino-4-ethenyl-7-oxo-2-thia-6-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-4-ene-5-carboxylic acid
Trade name : Sefdin, Adcef, Omnicef, Cefzon
Antibacterial spectrum : Cefdinir has good activity against many β-lactamase producing organisms. Most respiratory pathogens including gram-positive cocci are susceptible. Thus, it has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms :
- Gram-Positive Bacteria : Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains only), Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains only), Streptococcus pyogenes
- Gram-Negative Bacteria : Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis
Therapeutic uses : Cefdinir indications are pneumonia (including Community-Acquired Pneumonia), acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, ENT infections (e.g. Acute Maxillary Sinusitis, Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis), and skin infections.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of this drug and other antibacterial drugs, it should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.
Mechanism of action : Cephalosporins cause inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. i.e. they have the same mechanism of action as penicillin. However, they bind to different proteins than those which bind penicillins.
Side effects : Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but are more toxic than penicillin. Cefdinir may provoke following side effects :
- Diarrhea, abdominal pain,
- Vaginal infections or inflammation,
- Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD),
- Hypersensitivity reactions.
The pediatric version of drug can bind to iron in the digestive tract; in rare cases, this causes a rust or red discoloration of the stool. Blood typically appears dark brown or black in stool, and testing may confirm which is present. However, if the reddish stool is accompanied by abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, etc., a Clostridium difficile infection caused by the antibiotic could be signified.
Drug Interactions : Cefdinir may interact with following drugs :
- Antacids (aluminum- or magnesium-containing) : Change in the rate (Cmax) and extent (AUC) of absorption. If antacids are required during Cefdinir therapy, Cefdinir should be taken at least 2 hours before or after the antacid.
- Probenecid : Inhibits the renal excretion of Cefdinir
- Iron Supplements and Foods Fortified With Iron : Change in the extent of absorption. If iron supplements are required during Cefdinir therapy, Cefdinir should be taken at least 2 hours before or after the supplement.
- Contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporins.
For detailed query or in case of uncertainty, Always consult your doctor or pharmacist.