Health

Parasitic Amoebae

Parasitic Amoebae

Introduction

  • Amoebae are structurally simple protozoa which have no fixed shape.
  • The parasitic amoebae inhabit the alimentary canal.

Classification

Parasitic amoebae belong to the following genera:

Genus Species
Entamoeba E.histolytica, E.hartmanni, E.coli, E.polecki
Endolimax E.nana
Iodamoeba I.butschlii
Dientamoeba D.fragilis (now classified as Amoeboflagellate)

Entamoeba histolytica

  • Important human pathogen, causing amoebic dysentery as well as hepatic amoebiasis and other extraintestinal lesions.

E.hartmanni

  • Nonpathogenic, though it resembles E. histolytica very closely except for its smaller size and was therefore known as the ‘small race’ of E. histolytica.

E.polecki

  • A natural parasite of pigs and monkeys may sometimes infect humans causing diarrhoea.

E. coli 

  • Common commensal in the colon and its importance is that it may be mistaken for E.histolytica.

E.gingivalis

  • Present in the mouth, being found in large numbers when the oral hygiene is poor.
  • It has no cystic stage and so the trophozoites depend for transmission on direct oral contact as in kissing, air-borne spread through salivary droplets and fomites such as shared drinking and eating utensils.
  • It is generally nonpathogenic, though it has been claimed that it contributes to periodontal disease.

All the genera of intestinal amoebae other than Entamoeba are nonpathogenic commensals, except D.fragilis, which may occasionally cause chronic, but mild intestinal symptoms.

Intestinal amoebae can be differentiated based on their morphological features.

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