Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine, PSM) : Quick Review

Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine, PSM) : Quick Review

Question Answer
Father of Medicine/First True Epidemiologist Hippocrates
Father of Public Health Cholera
First Country to Socialise Medicine completely Russia
Health definition by WHO “State of complete physical, social and mental well being”
HDI (Human Development Index) comprises Knowledge (Literacy and Mean years of schooling), Income and Longevity (Life Expectancy at Birth)
Life Expectancy is a Mortality Indicator (Positive Health Indicator)
“Epidemiological Triad” comprises of Agent, Host and Environment
Extermination of organism is Eradication
Action taken prior to onset of disease is Primary Prevention
Early Diagnosis and Treatment are Secondary Prevention
Ivory Towers of Disease Large Hospitals
ICD-10 Classification is for Diseases
Prevalence is a Proportion (Total=New + Old Cases)
Total no. of deaths/Total no. of cases is Case Fatality Rate
Observed Deaths/Expected Deaths is Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR)
Prevalence/Duration is Incidence
Both exposure and outcome have occurred before study starts in Case Control Study
Cohort Study is Forward Looking/Prospective Study
Matching Removes confounding, Ensures Comparability
Relative Risk is Incidence among Exposed/ Incidence among non-exposed
Framingham Heart Study is a Cohort Study
Heart of a Control Trial is Randomization
Occurrence of a Disease Clearly in excess of normal expectancy Epidemic
Disease imported in a country where it doesn’t occur (Disease imported to a country for first time)
Iatrogenic Disease is Physician-induced
First case to come to notice of investigator Index Case
Pseudo-Carriers are Carriers of avirulent Organisms
Malaria parasite in Mosquito is Cyclo-propagative Transmission
Gap between Primary case and Secondary Case is Serial Interval
Yellow Fever/BCG/Measles are Live Vaccines/ Lyophilised vaccines
First Vaccine to be discovered Smallpox Vaccine (Edward Jenner)
Risk of Cold Chain failure is greatest at Sub-centre and Village level
Quarantine is for Healthy Contacts
Most effective sterilizing agent Autoclaving (Steam under pressure)
Beaching Powder contains 33% available chlorine
Advantage gained by screening Lead Time
Sensitivity indentifies True Positives
Usefulness of a screening test is given by Sensitivity
Small Pox was declared Eradicated on 8 May, 1980
Rash in Chickenpox is Pleomorphic and Dew-drop like
Koplik Spots are diagnostic of Measles (upper 2nd molar)
Incubation Period for Measles is 10-14 days
Strain for Measles Vaccine is Edmonston Zagreb
Strain for Rubella Vaccine RA 27/3
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) is by Type A (H5N1 strain) virus
Hundred Day Cough is Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
Drug Of Choice (DOC) for Chemoprophylaxis of Meningococcal Meningitis Rifampicin
Positive Schick Test indicates Susceptible to Diphtheria
Inability to drink is a sign of Very Severe Disease
SARS is caused by Corona Virus
Overall Prevalence of TB infection 30 – 40 %
Sputum Smear +ve at or after 5 months Antituberculosis Therapy (ATT)  Failure
Only Bacteriostatic drug in Primary ATT Drugs Ethambutol
Category II treatment (RNTCP) duration is 8 Months (3m IP + 5m CP)
WHO has recommended ‘DANISH 1331’ strain for BCG Vaccine
Failure in RNTCP Sputum +ve at/after 5 months treatment
Case finding Tool of choice in RNTCP is Sputum Smear (ZN Staining)
DOTS is Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course Chemotherapy
Relapse/Defaulter/Failure in RNTCP is classified as Category II (8 Months treatment)
For every 1 clinical case of Poliomyelitis, there are 1000 subclinical Cases
Polio stool samples are transported in Reverse Cold Chain (+ 2° to + 8° C)
HBeAg is Marker of Infectivity/Viral Replication
ORS Solution should be used within 24 Hours
Chandler’s Index for Hookworms is Av. No. of Eggs/gm of stool
Most Common arboviral disease is Dengue
Presumptive Treatment in Malaria Chloroquine
Only communicable disease of man that is always fatal Rabies
Main Vector for Yellow Fever is Aedes aegypti
Pigs in Japanese Encephalitis are Amplifier Hosts
KFD is transmitted in India by Haemaphysalis (Hard tick)
Main reservoir of Plague in India Tatera indica (Wild Rodent)
Scrub typhus is caused by Rickettsia tsustsugamushi
Sandfly transmits Leishmaniasis (Kala Azar)
Elimination Level for leprosy <1/10,000
MDT for PBL is given for 6 months
Yaws is caused by Treponema pertenue
Slims’ Disease is AIDS
Rule of Halves is seen in Hypertension
Most Common cause of heart disease in 5-30 yr old is Rheumatic fever
WHO Criteria for diagnosis of RF/RHD are based on Revised Jones Criteria
Most Common Cancer in India is Lung Cancer (Males); Cervico-uterine cancer (Females)
Pap Smear should be done At beginning of sexual activity and then every 3 yrs
BMI is Weight (Kgs)/Height2(m2)
Waist Hip Ratio indicates Obesity in Women when > 0.85
WHO Blindness is <3/60 in better eye
Most Common Cause of Blindness Cataract
Modified Plan Operation (1977) was based on API
In Malaria program, MPW does Active Surveillance every 14 days (Fortnightly)
NHP 2002 envisages Kala Azar Elimination by 2010
Under RNTCP Case finding is Passive
Prevalence of Blindness in India 1.05%
Under RCH Program, Kit A, B are kept at Subcentre Level
India was certified free of drancunculiasis on Feb 2001
Annual growth rate for India 1.64%
Sex ratio No. of females/1000 males (940 in 2011)
Completed family Size represents TFR (Total Fertility Rate)
2 child norm means NRR=1
No. of Eligible Couples in India 150–180 ECs/1000 population
Conventional Contraceptives Condoms/Spermicides
Progestasert (3rd gen IUD) releases 65 mcg/day Progesterone
Most Common complaint of IUD insertion is Bleeding
Only Non-steroidal OCP Centchroman (Saheli)
MTP Act, 1971 was passed in April 1972
For sterilization, age of Husband should be < 60 years
Contraceptive Efficacy/ failure is measured by Pearl index (____/HWY)
3 most important MCH problems Malnutrition, Infection and Unregulated fertility
Most Common disorder to be screened in neonates Neonatal Hypothyroidism
Low Birth Weight is Birth Weight <2.5 Kg
Most sensitive indicator of growth among children Weight
World’s greatest Public Health Tool is Immunization
Most Common Cause of MMR is Hemorrhage
Juvenile is age < 18 yrs (Boys), <18 yrs (Girls)
Alcohol yields energy of 7 Kcal/gram
Protein requirement 0.83 gm/kg/day
Most important Essential fatty Acid is Linoleic Acid
Richest Source of Vitamin-A/D is Halibut Liver oil
First Clinical Sign of Xerophthalmia Conjunctival Xerosis
Amino acid converted in body to Niacin Tryptophan
Richest Source of Vitamin-C Amla (Indian Gooseberry)
Adult Pregnant females are Anemic if Hb < 11 gm%
Optimum Level of Fluorine intake 0.5–0.8 ppm (mg/L)
Soyabean contains 43.2% proteins
Best among food proteins Egg
An Indian Reference Man weighs 60 kg
Best indicator of Protein Quality NPU
First Indicator of PEM Under-Weight for Age
Two-in-One salt contains Iron+Iodine
Toxin in Lathyrism BOAA
Acculturation is Cultural Contact
Phosphatase Test is done for Efficiency of pasteurization
IQ Mental Age/Chronological Age × 100
Disinfecting Action of chlorine is due to Hypochlorous Acid
Residual Level of Chlorine in Water 0.5 mg × Contact period 1 Hr
Temporary Hardness of Water is due to Ca++ and Mg++ Bicarbonates
Anemometer measures Air Velocity
Most satisfactory method of Refuse disposal Sanitary Landfill/Controlled Tipping
Water Seal in Sanitary latrine is 2 cms
Best approach for arthropod control Environmental Control
Tiger Mosquito Aedes
Paris green is a Stomach Poison
Pyrethrum is a Space Spray
Plumbism is Lead poisoning
Most Common Occupational Cancer Skin Cancer
Preplacement Examination is a part of Ergonomics
Indian Factories Act, 1948 recommends per capita space Min.500 cu.ft.
Sickness Benefit ubder ESI Act, 1948 91 days
Census takes place every 10 years
Normal Distribution Curve is Bell Shaped Symmetric
To test significance of Difference between two proportions Chi-Square test
Focus group Discussion should have 6-12 members
NHP 2002 says, Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis by 2015
Bhore committee was established in 1943
MPW Multi-purpose Workers was given by Kartar Singh Committee
1 PHC is for a population of 30,000
International Conference at Alma-Ata (1978) gave concept of Primary Health Care
MDGs have to be achieved by 2015
MPW is located at Subcentre level
‘O’ in GOBI Campaign (UNICEF) stands for Oral Rehydration therapy
Diseases under International Health Regulations Cholera, Plague and Yellow fever (and Smallpox, Wild Polio, Human influenza & SARS)
Search for cases in epidemic is done till Twice the Incubation period since last case
Point source epidemic Sharp rise/fall, all cases in 1 Incubation period
Phase I clinical trial of drugs done on Healthy volunteers
MMR is a Ratio
Case fatality rate Killing power of a disease
Marc Koska developed Disposable K1-syringe (auto-disabled)
Measles vaccine stored at + 2° to + 8° C
Rubella is Live vaccine and C/I in pregnancy
Period of infectivity of measles 4 days before to 5 days after rash appearance
Yellow fever Vaccine (17 D) Live Vaccine
Lyophilized (freeze dried) Vaccines BCG, Yellow Fever, Measles, MMR
Cold Chain Temperature + 2° to + 8° C
Sensitivity True positives (and Specificity : True Negatives)
PPV is directly proportional to Prevalence
Dysphagia, dysarthria and diplopia seen in Clostridium botulinum food poisoning
DOC for Kala Azar (Black sickness) in Indian program Sodium Stibo-gluconate (Antimonials)
DOC for Lympho granuloma venerum Doxycycline
Malaria exhibits Cyclo-propogative transmission
Vector of urban malaria Anopheles stephensi
Tourniquet test (dengue) is +ve >20 petechial spots/ sq. inch in cubital fossa
Reservoir in Chikungunya fever Primates (monkeys)
Reservoir of Polio Man (only)
HEV transmission Feco-oral route
Hydatid disease cysts in Postero-superior lobe of liver
Typhoid diagnosed in 1st week by Blood Culture
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis resembles Typhoid/Appendicitis (in humans)
8th Day Disease Tetanus neonatorum
DOC Cholera (Pregnancy) Furazolidone
Diagnosis in RNTCP 2 sputum smear examination (ZN Staining)
RNTCP Objectives >85% cure rate and >70% case detection rate
Treatment duration of MBL 12 months (Surveillance 5 years)
Elimination Level of Neonatal tetanus <0.1 per 1,000
IP of yellow fever 2–6 days
Validity of YF vaccination Certificate 10 days – 10 years
HIV MTCT due to breast feeding 12-16 %
HIV MTCT Prevention with Nevirapine 50%
Nevirapine in MTCT given to child Within 72 hours
Zidovudine is C/I with antiretroviral drug Stavudine
Best marker of HIV progression CD4 : CD8 ratio
Most Common Opportunistic Infection in HIV Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia (TB–India)
Blood screening before transfusion HIV/ HBV/ HCV/ Malaria/ Syphilis
Epidemic typhus main mammalian reservoir Human beings
Soft Tick is vector of Q fever, Relapsing Fever, KFD (not India)
Avian influena DOC Oseltamivir 150 mg BD × 5 days
Last outbreak of Plague Dangud, Uttrakashi (2004)
Indicator of operational efficiency in Malaria ABER (Annual Blood Examination Rate)
Highest Growth Rate in India (Census 2001) Nagaland (64%:1991-2001), (D & N Haveli in 2001-11)
India is in Demographic cycle Stage 3 (Declining BR and declining DR)
Highest Life Expectancy Japan (M:79y; F:86y)
Life expectancy India (M:64y; F:67y)
NPP 2000, Bring ‘TFR to replacement level’ by 2010
% Geriatric population in India 8.1 %
Infant Mortality rate No. of infant deaths per 1000 Live births
IMR of Japan 3 per 1000 LB (MMR : 7 per 1,00,000 LB)
Normal respiratory rate in a newborn 40–60 breaths per minute
Pearl Index (Failure rate per HWY) Contraceptive Efficacy
Failure rate of condoms 2–14 per HWY
WHO Oligospermia Sperm Count <20 million/HPF
National Maternity Benefit Scheme 500/- per birth to poor women (first 2 births)
Short stature in High Risk Pregnancy < 140 cms
Mental retardation if IQ Level < 70
Golden Rice is rich in ß-carotene (and Iron)
Milk is poor in Vitamin C and Iron
Pulse with highest protein content Soyabean (43%)
Reference protein Egg (NPU 96)
Toxin in Lathyrism BOAA
No plant source for vitamins B12 and D
Tests of pasteurization Phosphatase test (MC), Coliform Count, Std plate count
Horrocks Apparatus (Starch Iodide indicator) Chlorine demand estimation
Level of residual level of chlorine in water 0.5 ppm (mg/litre) for contact period 1hr
Maximum tolerable level of nitrates in water 50 mg/litre
Anopheles larvae rest Parallel to under surface water
Aedes larvae breed in Artificial collection of water
Kata thermometer measures Cooling power of air
Maximum allowable sweat rate 4.5 litres per 4 hours
Vit-D resistant rickets inheritance Sex-linked dominant
Burtonian Line (Blue Line on Gums) Lead poisoning (Plumbism)
Group addressed & lecture on specific topic Symposium
The Factory Act and ESI Act were passed in 1948
Recommended per capita space in Factory Act 500 Cubic feet
No. of PHCs in India 24,049
Bhore committee (1946) recommended ‘3 Million Plan’ and ‘Social Physicians’
Average incubation period for HIV 10 years
‘Inventory’ (of materials) means Stock on hand at anytime
Scatter/Dot Diagram represents Correlation
Histogram is Continuous quantitative data presentation
Mean (μ) + 2 SD (s) 95 % of total values
Use of Cluster Random Sampling Evaluation of Immunization Coverage
Chi-square Test Sig. of association b/w 2 qualitative characteristics
Total osmolarity of WHO Reduced Osmolarity ORS 245 mmol/L
Routine surveillance is supplemented by Sentinel surveillance
Traditional lifestyles for CHD prevention Primordial level
Softening of water is recommended above hardness >150 mg/litre
Degrees of freedom for 3X6 table (Chi-square) is 10
Word ‘Random’ means Equal and known chance
DOTS Plus refers to MDR TB treatment (Cat IV)
Low birth weight incidence in India is 28%
One Urban-PHC is for population 50,000
€A group of health experts discuss a health topic & audience Panel discussion
Ambulatory patients in triage Cat III (GREEN)
Mite transmits rickettsial diseases Scrub typhus, R. pox
Drug of choice for scabies 5% Permethrin
Statistical test to compare means between 2 groups Unpaired students t-test
Exposure period required for Anthracosis 12 years
1 PHC in tribal area for a population of 20,000
Dose of ORS for a child with weight 12 kg 900 ml
ICD10 classification is revised every 10 years
Main disinfection in chlorination of water is by Hypochlorous acid
3 divisions of Planning Commission General secretariat, Technical divisions,
Program advisors
ROME scheme recommended by Srivastava committee
Q-fever is caused by Coxiella burnetti
Q-fever is transmitted by Inhalation of infected dust
Midday meal programme provides 1/3 calories and 1/2 proteins
Unmet need for Family planning in India is highest for Adolescents
Number of holes per sq. inch in mosquito net 150
Most Common Cause of neonatal mortality in India LBW and prematurity
Most Common side effect of Depot contraceptives Irregular menstrual bleeding
Mortality is included in NRR (Net reproduction rate)
MDG Goal 4 is to Reduce child mortality by Two-thirds by 2015
Health worker in Malaria control must visit all houses every Fortnight
Carcinoma protected by OCPs Ovarian carcinoma
1 Community Development Block population 100,000
Exclusive breast feeding till 6 months age
Older name of Janani Suraksha Yojana National Maternity Benefit Scheme
Oder in Nalgonda technique for defluoridation Lime + Alum
Incubation period for Measles 10 days
First outbreak of Hepatitis E in Delhi 1955
Most Common food poisoning Staphylococcus
Best method to prevent Nosocomial infection Hand washing
True positive indicate Sensitivity
Hardy Weinberg law failure in Mutations, Linkage disequilibrium
Hepatitis B vaccine is a type of Killed vaccine
Prophylactic treatment of Rheumatic heart disease Benzathaine penicillin
Vector of Yellow fever Aedes aegypti
1994 epidemic in India was Plague
DOC for Crimean Congo Fever Ribavirin
Effectiveness of MCH services is given by IMR
Kit B is kept at Subcentres
Richest source of Iron among nuts Pistachio
€Vaccine strain for Swine flu vaccine in india A7/California/2009
Web of causation proposed by McMohan and Pugh
Father of Modern Toxicology Mathieu Orfila
Condom failure occurs due to Incorrect use
BMI of Normal Asian Men 18.5-22.99
Infective stage of Plasmodium to man Sporozoite
Spot map was used for study of Cholera
Normal IQ is 90–109
Koplik spots are seen in Measles
Acrodermatitis enteropathica is due to deficiency of Zinc
ESI Act came in year 1948
Sodium ion content in ORS 75 mmol/ L
Hydatid cyst is seen most commonly in Liver
Main aim of Vision 2020 Eliminate avoidable blindness
Shelf life of CuT 380 A 10 years
Recommended frequency of school health examination Once every 6 months
Human DNA consist of 3 billion base pairs
Doors + windows area in a school class >25% of floor area
Highest case fatality rate Rabies
Advice to couple with both HIV+ Use condoms


1 Comment

1 Comment

  1. Sreedevi

    January 22, 2018 at 5:54 pm


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